Potent repression of C-reactive protein (CRP) expression by the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in inflammatory human hepatocytes

To determine whether inflammatory hepatocytes may constitute primary targets for ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, its effects towards expression of hepatic acute-phase proteins, especially C-reactive protein (CRP), were assessed.Ruxolitinib effects were analysed in primary human hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepaRG cells exposed to various inflammatory stimuli.
RESULTS

Ruxolitinib was found to fully inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CRP secretion and mRNA expression, at concentrations (IC50 = 12.9 nM) achievable in human blood. It similarly repressed CRP up-regulation due to several Toll-like receptor agonists or pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL) 1β, IL6 and tumour necrosis factor α] and counteracted LPS-mediated induction of serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serpin. Ruxolitinib was additionally found to block the activation of the IL6/JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway triggered by LPS and whose inhibition by the neutralizing anti-IL6 receptor antibody tocilizumab prevented CRP induction.Ruxolitinib can potently repress induction of CRP in inflammatory human hepatocytes, most likely through targeting the IL6/JAK/STAT signalling cascade. Hepatic production of acute-phase proteins during liver inflammation may, therefore, constitute a target for ruxolitinib.

Nanomolar aluminum induces expression of the inflammatory systemic biomarker Creactive protein (CRP) in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (hBMECs).

C-reactive protein (CRP; also known as pentraxin 1, PTX1), a 224 amino acid soluble serum protein organized into a novel pentameric ring-shaped structure, is a highly sensitive pathogenic biomarker for systemic inflammation. High CRP levels are found in practically every known inflammatory state, and elevated CRP levels indicate an increased risk for several common age-related human degenerative disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While the majority of CRP is synthesized in the liver for secretion into the systemic circulation, it has recently been discovered that an appreciable amount of CRP is synthesized in highly specialized endothelial cells that line the vasculature of the brain and central nervous system (CNS).
These highly specialized cells, the major cell type lining the human CNS vasculature, are known as human brain microvessel endothelial cells (hBMECs). In the current pilot study we examined (i) CRP levels in human serum obtained from AD and age-matched control patients; and (ii) analyzed the effects of nanomolar aluminum sulfate on CRP expression in primary hBMECs. The three major findings in this short communication are: (i) that CRP is up-regulated in AD serum; (ii) that CRP serum levels increased in parallel with AD progression; and (iii) for the first time show that nanomolar aluminum potently up-regulates CRP expression in hBMECs to many times its ‘basal abundance’. The results suggest that aluminum-induced CRP may in part contribute to a pathophysiological state associated with a chronic systemic inflammation of the human vasculature.

High sensitivity Creactive protein (Hs-CRP) remains highly stable in long-term archived human serum.

BACKGROUND
The stability of biomarkers in stored biomedical samples is crucial, especially when storage is for extended periods of time. High-sensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) is a biomarker of low grade inflammation that is extensively used to identify and study cardiovascular and/or inflammatory processes in clinical care and large epidemiologic studies. Therefore, assessing Hs-CRP stability in archived samples at a given temperature is important to ensure precision of measurements over time and the validity of studies using archived samples.
METHODS
We evaluated the stability of Hs-CRP in 30 randomly selected human serum samples by measuring Hs-CRP concentrations in freshly collected sample [Hs-CRP (0)] and in the same set of samples after 7-11years of storage at -80°C [Hs-CRP (LT)].
RESULTS
Hs-CRP did not significantly change up to 11years of storage at -80°C as shown by a negligible median difference between Hs-CRP (0) and Hs-CRP (LT), delta(Hs-CRP (0)-Hs-CRP (LT))=-0.01, p=0.45. There was a good concordance and agreement between Hs-CRP (0) and Hs-CRP (LT) as measured respectively by Lin’s coefficient of correlation (ρC=0.98) and Bland-Altman analysis (mean difference=-0.02, 95% CI [-0.04-0.0045] p=0.107). In addition, the data also suggest that the time elapsed between collection and Hs-CRP measurement does not affect Hs-CRP stability over time when samples are kept under the appropriate conditions.
CONCLUSIONS
Long-term storage at -80°C for up to 11years did not significantly affect the stability of serum Hs-CRP. Given the cost and time for collecting fresh samples, this observation represents an important finding for biomedical research and clinical care.

Creactive protein (CRP) induces chemokine secretion via CD11b/ICAM-1 interaction in human adherent monocytes.

Several studies support C-reactive protein (CRP) as a systemic cardiovascular risk factor. The recent detection of CRP in arterial intima suggests a dual activity in atherosclerosis as a circulating and tissue mediator on vascular and immune cells. In the present paper, we focused on the inflammatory effects of CRP on human monocytes, which were isolated by Ficoll-Percoll gradients and cultured in adherence to polystyrene, endothelial cell monolayer, or in suspension. Chemokine levels, adhesion molecule, and chemokine receptor expression were detected by ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time RT-PCR. Migration assays were performed in a Boyden chamber. Stimulation with CRP induced release of CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 in adherent monocytes through the binding to CD32a, CD32b, and CD64, whereas no effect was observed in suspension culture.
This was associated with CRP-induced up-regulation of adhesion molecules membrane-activated complex 1 (Mac-1) and ICAM-1 on adherent monocytes. Blockade of Mac-1/ICAM-1 interaction inhibited the CRP-induced chemokine secretion. In addition, CRP reduced mRNA and surface expression of corresponding chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 in adherent monocytes. This effect was a result of chemokine secretion, as coincubation with neutralizing anti-CCL2, anti-CCL3, and anti-CCL4 antibodies reversed the effect of CRP. Accordingly, a reduced migration of CRP-treated monocytes to CCL2 and CCL3 was observed. In conclusion, our data suggest an in vitro model to study CRP activities in adherent and suspension human monocytes. CRP-mediated induction of adhesion molecules and a decrease of chemokine receptors on adherent monocytes might contribute to the retention of monocytes within atherosclerotic lesions and recruitment of other circulating cells.

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Polymorphism in the human Creactive protein (CRP) gene, serum concentrations of CRP, and the difference between intracranial and extracranial atherosclerosis.

BACKGROUND
C-reactive protein, a proinflammatory factor, is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The CRP 1059G>C polymorphism appeared to be a susceptive marker for atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship of the distribution of cerebral atherosclerosis with triggered serum CRP concentrations following acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (IS/TIA) and CRP 1059G>C polymorphism.
METHODS
We recruited 222 IS/TIA patients (122 with only intracranial atherosclerotic lesions and 100 with isolated extracranial atherosclerotic lesions) and 227 controls. Intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic lesions were determined by digital subtraction angiography. Serum CRP concentrations were measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry assay. CRP 1059G>C genotypes were obtained through PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion.
RESULTS
CRP concentrations were significantly higher in intra- and extracranial groups than in controls. No significant difference was found in CRP concentrations between intra- and extracranial groups. The CRP 1059G>C single-nucleotide polymorphism did not influence CRP serum concentrations. CRP genotype and allele frequencies did not differ significantly between patients and controls. However, the frequencies of GC genotype and C allele were significantly higher in extracranial group than that in intracranial group. The GC individuals showed a higher risk of extracranial atherosclerosis compared with GG individuals (OR 3.41; 95%CI, 1.124-10.347; P=0.030).
CONCLUSIONS
Serum CRP is associated with cerebral atherosclerotic disease. CRP 1059G>C polymorphism is one possible genetic determinant for the difference between intra- and extracranial atherosclerosis.